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Risk Assessment
Record information and status
Record ID
7443
Status
Published
Date of creation
2005-02-28 09:30 UTC (marco.gielkens@rivm.nl)
Date of last update
2012-09-25 10:17 UTC (marco.gielkens@rivm.nl)
Date of publication
2012-09-25 10:17 UTC (marco.gielkens@rivm.nl)

General Information
Country
  • Netherlands
Title of risk assessment
Evaluation of non-flowering genetically modified apple trees with increased resistance to fungi in the field.
Date of the risk assessment
2005-01-27
Competent National Authority(ies) responsible for the risk assessment
Ministry for Infrastructure and Water Management
NL-2500 EX
The Hague
The Netherlands, P.O.Box 20901
Phone:+31 6 25684418
Email:mijntje.aarts@minienw.nl
Url:Rijksoverheid NL Biotechnologie (Dutch),General governmental webpage biotechnology (English)
Risk assessment details
Living modified organism
Non flowering apple tree, modified for resistance to fungi
Resistance to antibiotics - Kanamycin Resistance to diseases and pests - Fungi Selectable marker genes and reporter genes
Scope of the risk assessment
  • LMOs for Introduction into the environment
    • Field trial
Risk assessment report / Summary
Methodology and points to consider
Likelihood that the potential adverse effects will be realized
Trees must be treated with giberellines to prevent flowering. The experimental object must be frequently observed on inflorescence. Inflorescence must be removed before flowering, in case this may occur.
Possible consequences:
No outcrossing will be possible, any potential effect will therefore be confined to the trial plot.
Estimation of the overall risk
The risk on any adverse effect is considered to be negligible.
Need(s) for further information on specific issues of concern
Currently, insufficient information is available to assess the effect of the hordothionin protein on visiting insect and soil organisms.
In case of upscaling of the field trials (including flowering of the trees resulting in apple production), experimental data should be supplied regarding the degradation patterns of the hordothionin proteins in the soil and if this will affect soil organisms. Furthermore, data may be asked regarding the possible effects of the GMPs on (visiting) insects.
Receiving environment(s) considered
The Central-Netherlands. In this same region commercial production of apple occurs also.
LMO detection and identification methods proposed
No specific validated detection method available.
Additional Information
Additional Information
The gene encoding hordothionin confers resistance to Venturia inequalis and Nectria galligena. It might also affect Podosphora leucotricha and Erwinia amylovora.
Since it is at this stage unknown whether there will be any effect of the modification in relation to sensitivity to other fungal or bacterial diseases, dispersal or introgression of the trait should be avoided.
In case of upscaling of the field trials, experimental data should be supplied regarding the degradation patterns of the hordothionin proteins in the soil and if this will affect soil organisms. Furthermore, data may be asked regarding the possible effects of the GMPs on (visiting) insects.

1. The rootstocks bearing grafts will be harvested in before sprouting and evaluated under controlled experimental conditions;
2. Evaluation of resistance to apple scab (Venturia inequalis) in the open field;
3. Evaluation of specifity of resistance to other plant-pathogenic organisms, such as mildew (Podosphora leucotricha) and fruittree cancer (Erwinia amylovora).

An English summary of the notification including the risk assessment is available at the EU WebSNIF website EC-JRC GMO Register under notification numbers B/NL/98/06, B/NL/00/04, B/NL/02/03 and B/NL/04/02.

The consent is available at http://www.ggo-vergunningverlening-zoeken.nl (notification number IM 04-002) (only in Dutch).

Earlier assessments/decisions on the same transgenic apple trees are available at http://gmoinfo.jrc.it/ under notification numbers B/NL/04/02, B/NL/02/03, B/NL/00/04 and B/NL/98/06;

This field trial has been succeeded by a new trail with flowering trees (B/NL/10/05).
Other relevant website address or attached documents