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Record information and status
Record ID
Date of creation
2020-08-28 20:33 UTC (austein.mcloughlin@cbd.int)
Date of publication
2020-08-28 20:33 UTC (austein.mcloughlin@cbd.int)

General Information
Molecular Characterization and Event-Specific Real-Time PCR Detection of Two Dissimilar Groups of Genetically Modified Petunia (Petunia x hybrida) Sold on the Market
Marleen M. Voorhuijzen, Theo W. Prins, Anke Belter, Joachim Bendiek, Claudia Brünen-Nieweler, Jeroen P. van Dijk, Ottmar Goerlich, Esther J. Kok, Benjamin Pickel, Ingrid M. J. Scholtens, Andrea Stolz, Lutz Grohmann
  • English
Publication date
Summary, abstract or table of contents
Petunia plants with unusual orange flowers were noticed on the European market and confirmed to be genetically modified (GM) by the Finnish authorities in spring 2017. Later in 2017, inspections and controls performed by several official laboratories of national competent authorities in the European Union detected several GM petunia varieties with orange flowers, but also another group of unusually colored flowers. In the latter group, a so far undetected gene coding for a flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (F3'5'H) responsible for the purple color was identified by German and Dutch authorities, suggesting that the petunias found on the markets contain different genetic constructs. Here, a strategy is described for the identification of GM petunia varieties. It is based on an initial GMO screening for known elements using (real-time) PCR and subsequent identification of the insertion sites by a gene walking-like approach called ALF (amplification of linearly-enriched fragments) in combination with Sanger and MinION sequencing. The results indicate that the positively identified GM petunias can be traced back to two dissimilar GM events used for breeding of the different varieties. The test results also confirm that the transgenic petunia event RL01-17 used in the first German field trial in 1991 is not the origin of the GM petunias sold on the market. On basis of the obtained sequence data, event-specific real-time PCR confirmatory methods were developed and validated. These methods are applicable for the rapid detection and identification of GM petunias in routine analysis. In addition, a decision support system was developed for revealing the most likely origin of the GM petunia.
Thematic areas
Information on Organisms or LMOs
Organism(s) identification
Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
Gene(s) identification
CaMV 35S promoter - Cauliflower mosaic virus - CaMV
Nopaline Synthase Gene Terminator - Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium
Nopaline Synthase Gene Promoter - Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium
Neomycin Phosphotransferase II - Escherichia coli - ECOLX
Resistance to antibiotics - Kanamycin
Octopine Synthase Gene Terminator - Agrobacterium tumefaciens - Agrobacterium
Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase - Zea mays - Maize, Corn, MAIZE
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Beta-lactamase gene - Escherichia coli - ECOLX
Resistance to antibiotics - Ampicillin
Dihydroflavonol-4-reductase - Petunia hybrida - Petunia, PETHY
Changes in quality and/or metabolite content - Pigmentation / Coloration
Additional Information
Type of resource
  • Article (journal / magazine / newspaper)
doi: 10.3389/fpls.2020.01047
Publisher and its location
Frontiers in Plant Science
Frontiers Editorial Office
Avenue du Tribunal Fédéral 34
CH - 1005 Lausanne
Tel: +41(0)21 510 17 40
Fax +41 (0)21 510 17 01
Open access
PDF - 11 pages (2.43 MB) ; online
Journal articles
Keywords and any other relevant information
DNA Sequencing; real-time PCR; MinION; Sanger; flower colour; petunias; surveillance; unknown; event-specific; unauthorized